A Summary on Organization and Management Topic

Organization and Management

Management refers to the process of coordinating work activities to achieve an organization's goals through teamwork. It is essential in any organization to ensure people work harmoniously to reach the company's objectives. 

Management is universal and continuous, drawing from various disciplines. It is a goal-oriented, intangible force that provides direction and operates as an ongoing cycle. 

The evolution of management thought 

can be divided into four stages:

1. Pre-scientific management

2. Classical Theory (including Scientific Management, Administrative Management, and Bureaucratic Model)

3. Neo-classical Theory or Behavioral Approach

4. Modern Theory or Systems Approach. 

Important Terms:

Management: The process of coordinating work activities to achieve organizational goals through teamwork.

Organization's Goals: Objectives set for the company's success and effectiveness.

Scientific Management: Introduced by F.W. Taylor, it focuses on optimizing work processes for efficiency.

Administrative Management: Developed by Henry Fayol, it emphasizes managing organizations through planning, organizing, and controlling.

Bureaucratic Model: Proposed by Max Weber, advocates for a hierarchical organization with clear rules and procedures.

Neo-classical Theory: An extension of classical management with a greater emphasis on individual and group relationships in the workplace.

Hawthorne Experiment: Studies conducted at the Hawthorne Works highlighted the significance of employee satisfaction in productivity.

Modern Theory or Systems Approach: Views organizations as adaptive systems with interconnected components working towards specific objectives.


Modern Management Thought encompasses the Systems Approach and Contingency Theory. 

The Systems Approach views an organization as a system with five basic parts: Input, Process, Output, Feedback, and Environment. 

Contingency Theory emphasizes that all organizational subsystems and the external environment are interconnected, and managerial actions must be adjusted based on specific situations.

Five functions of management that are essential for achieving organizational goals: 

  • Planning
  • Organizing
  • Staffing
  • Directing
  • Controlling

Planning involves making decisions today that will impact the organization's future. 

Organizing establishes a formal structure to coordinate work subdivisions. 

Staffing involves hiring and retaining a suitable workforce. 

Directing focuses on leadership, communication, motivation, and supervision of employees. 

Controlling ensures that events align with pre-arranged plans and takes corrective actions when deviations occur.

Managers have interpersonal, informational, and decisional roles. 

Interpersonal roles include being a Figurehead, Leader, and Liaison. 

Informational roles involve being a Monitor, Disseminator, and Spokesperson. 

Decisional roles include being an Entrepreneur, Disturbance Handler, Resource Allocator, and Negotiator. 

Robert L. Katz categorized managerial skills into:

Technical skills - important for lower management

Human skills - needed for all levels

Conceptual skills - essential for top management

Additional notes:

Somebody who accustoms and inspects the work of other people in order for the goal of the organization to be attained.

Managerial Levels

Managerial Levels

Organizing Managers

. Top Managers
They are people who manage the work of non-managerial employees.
. Middle Managers
They are people who manage the work of First-Line Managers.
. First-Line Managers
They are people who make plans and goals that will contribute to the whole organization and they are responsible for preparing and composing organization-wide decisions.

It includes coordinating and inspecting the work of other people to make sure that their works are done effectively and efficiently.

Henry Fayol (1841-1925)
He was a French industrialist and he developed a general theory of business administration which is known as Fayolism.

Elements of Management:


. Planning
. Organizing
. Commanding
. Coordination
. Control


It stands for:

What is MBWA?

MBWA means management by walking around.

Principles of Management by Henry Fayol

1. Division of Work 
The work must be divided in order to have unity. But each work must be given to those who are an expert in those fields.

2. Authority and Responsibility
So as to complete things in an association, the executives have the authority to offer requests to the representatives. Obviously with this authority comes with obligation.

3. Discipline
It is widely seen as the oil to make the engine of an organization run smoothly. 

4. Unity of Command
It implies that an individual representative ought to get orders from one supervisor and that the worker is responsible to that chief. 

5. Unity of Direction
It is all about focus and unity.

6. Subordination of Individual Interest to General Interest
Any person's interest that contentions with a hierarchical intrigue must be subjected to the interests of the association.

7. Remuneration 
It is all about rewarding the efforts that have been made by the whole organization. 

8. The Degree of Centralization 
According to Henri Fayol, an organization must strive for a good balance in it. 

9. Scalar Chain
It is a line of authority which starts from highest to lowest rank in the organization.

10. Order 
It includes that the work environment must be tidy, clean, and safe. 

11. Equity 
Henry Fayol said that representatives must be dealt with generous and similarly.

12. Stability of Tenure of Personnel 
It speaks to the arrangement and overseeing of personnel and this ought to be in offset with the administration that is given from the association. 

13. Initiative
Henry Fayol said that with this administration standard workers ought to be permitted to express new thoughts.

14. Esprit de Corps
It represents involvement in the association and solidarity of the representatives.

Lastly, the managerial concerns. Efficiency is doing things right, while effectiveness is doing the right things.

Senior High School Notes


Van Vliet, V. (2011). Five Functions of Management (Fayol). ToolsHero. https://www.toolshero.com/management/five-functions-of-management/

Evolution of Management Thought. (n.d.). Vedantu. https://www.vedantu.com/commerce/evolution-of-management-thought

Gitman, L. J., McDaniel, C., Shah, A., Reece, M., Koffel, L., Talsma, B., & Hyatt, J. C. (2018). Introduction to Business. OpenStax. Houston, Texas. https://openstax.org/books/introduction-business/pages/1-introduction


McJulez is a passionate writer who loves making concise summaries, sharing valuable notes, and talking about new insights. With a background in campus journalism and a commitment to delivering experienced and reliable content, McJulez is dedicated to making this platform a community of learning and connection. facebook twitter pinterest

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